The text proceeds from the analysis of the correlation between the idea of rationality and the affirmation-negation of God. Therefore it considers the epistemological premises of modern atheism, identified in the unfolding of the principle of immanence. It subsequently goes on to examine both the political atheism of modernity and that of post-modernity. The first, presents itself vividly in the theory of the State as the arbiter of justice and injustice, as of good and evil, while the latter is expressed as an active, positive or deconstructive negation of being (of politics) in its determinacy. On these assumptions, atheism coincides with the anti-ontology of politics, and this is resolved in the post-ontology. Such “immanentization” vacates order in organization and power in effectiveness.
The question about humanism remains immensely necessary because it belongs to the human being and to the very antihumanism which accompanies it like a disturbing shadow. The crisis of the subject bears witness to the -most likely irreversible- fall of the modern line of subjectivism; nevertheless it leaves the category of person intact and that is what acts as a fundamental means of resistance against the dissolution of all things humanistic. The dehumanization of humanism must be diagnosed, and a way out, found. In this paper we try to answer cer-tain questions: What is modern huma-nism and which are the stages that hu-manism and antihumanism have under-gone? Which are the sources of antihu-manism? Which are its con-sequences? We will remain close to the present mo-ment and to the scientificist shapes of contemporary antihumanism. We will end with some considerations on the posthuman and transhuman
Protestantism and modernity. Religious subjectivism and political subjectivism in Balmes, de Maistre and Taparelli’s analysis
This article analyzes how Modernity and Protestantism relate to each other in Balmes, de Maistre and Taparelli’s work. According to Balmes, the negation of truth that Protestantism’s religious subjectivity implies is the basis of modern atheism and liberalism. To de Maistre, modern individualism cannot be understood without the negation of the authority made by Protestantism and, according to Taparelli, Protestantism’s subjectivity allowed the liberalization of the juridical and political order. All this has led to the sovereignty of the individual, which reduces man to his own power possibilities and dehumanize him.
Finite ens, in the metaphysics of Thomas Aquinas, is characterized by two immanent compositions: that of the act of being with the essence and that of the substance and its accidents, which are ordered or “finalized” to operation. Subsequently, the transcendent foundation of ens shows that esse, essence and operation manifest respectively the efficient, exemplary and final causal action of God the Creator on his creatures. This investigation seeks to explain why and how the act of being that is received by the essence necessarily requires operation as its ultimate expansion. The result is that the participation of created ens in Esse per essentiam is ultimately operative, and not merely static, and is properly expressed by means of the triad esse, essentia, operatio, where the last word means the tendency to act
The last answer to the importance of the problem of “person” has not done anything but increasing since 1900. Personalism scope has moved beyond the limits of the classical subjects and include today the inner core of the person, its “manipulability”, along with biotechnologies, neuroscience and cybernetic sciences while materialist and determinist thesis are being spread out. Personalism duty in modernity as well as in post-modernity becomes decisive, as for its responsibility to contribute to mend the fractures of the modern era. Among the former ones, there is the gnoseological fracture between mind and world under the sign of an intense dualism; the fracture between science and wisdom together with the primacy of the first one; the fracture between human being and God due to the denial of Transcendence or the conflict of the principle of created or uncreated liberty; and the anthropological fracture between substantial or functional idea of the person that includes the radical theme of soul-body nexus which is the object of our work
Thomas Aquinas’s ontology of the person is based on being. More particularly, the notion of person as subsistens distinctum introduces anthropology within the ontology of the created spirit. Aquinas’s anthropology discovers existence achieving form. Forma dat esse means the fundamental principle of an ontology of the person which puts a special emphasis on the intellectual principle of human behaviour, the unity of the human being, the personal character of the body, the spirituality of the intellect and will and love as communication of the human being
In Cornelio Fabro’s thinking, the notion of value is investigated from different points of view. It is considered in the “dialectics” of moral value, in essential axiological requirements, and in its metaphysical underpinnings. His perspective is radically different from any Kantian or immanentist “philosophy of values”. The upshot is the philosophical stand according to which knowing, acting and being are intrinsically axiological. Hence, no axiological neutrality is possible or real, in any field. This is an original aspect of Fabro’s thought –which has been so far overlooked– but which is certainly interesting, particularly in the reals of morality, law, and politics
The reflection on the meaning of the term “nature” is particularly important in the context of knowledge on natural beings and this topic maintains a distinctive relevance to the present day.
This contribution only attempts to clarify the meaning of the term nature in the works of Thomas Aquinas, and to particularly explain the two fundamental meanings proposed in the Summa Theologiae: nature as essence and nature as a whole of material things. It will then seek to analyse how Aquinas describes the presence of phenomenon as it happens by chance within the context of the natural order. This also serves as an illustration of the usefulness of a correct comprehension of what natural can mean
The critique of St Thomas to the ontological argument (ST I, q.2, a.1) in the reading of the Dominican Masters of the “School of Salamanca”
This paper addresses the evaluation and critique of the so-called “ontological argument” in Scholasticism and in the philosophy of the modern period. There is offered a survey of texts of various Dominican Masters of theology who, prevalently in the University of Salamanca, have commented on the reply furnished by St Thomas Aquinas to the argument of id quo maius cogitari nequit, stated in a. 1 of q. 2 of the I Pars of the Summa.
We dedicate our attention also –but only in the particular case of Godoy– to the question (treated instead in a. 2 of q. 2) of the possibility or otherwise of demonstrating the existence of God with an a priori proof. In this way it will be possible to lay out the evidence that just as the two problems are distinct, to which Aquinas dedicates two different articles in q. 2 of the I Pars of the Summa Theologiae, so too there effectively result diverse debates which will have their origin in the Scholasticism of the modern period
Cornelio Fabro’s research helps us to rediscover the significance of truth of the human knowledge in the light of St Thomas Aquinas’ realism –as adhesion and fidelity to the reality– in a critical comparison with modern and contemporary philosophy. It is possible especially in virtue of St. Thomas’ speculative genius.
This article presents Fabro´s research on Aristotle´s and Thomas Aquinas´ most relevant thesis, which allow to assert the possibility of a genuine knowledge of reality and to overcome cartesian separation of perception and thought
Love and beauty, contemplation and complacence. Reflections on the basis of saint Thomas Aquinas’ thought
The experience of beauty is placed at the beginning of the understanding of the truth and loving the good: it is in some sense the principle of these actions. At the source of the diversity of human experience, we find its essential unity, which is the unity of the object, experienced as beauty. In the later stages of personal experience, the beauty manifests itself as a source of persistent relationships between cognitive and appetitive acts. The original experience of beauty consists of a primary contemplation of being and of love as complacency (complacentia). In the final part of the article, it is considered love as a principle dynamising the appetition, and also the dynamics of the relationship between love and cognition.
The present study analyzes the Thomistic doctrine concerning the foundations of art and beauty and the relationship between beauty and goodness.
Although a complete artistic theory is not found in Thomistic intents, several texts of Thomas Aquinas give valuable clues for an organic theory of art aimed to beauty and good.
Reference to nature is crucial for the production of an authentic human art, as can be seen in various examples from the past.
The following section discusses some of the implications derived from the Thomist position or, on the contrary, from a relativistic conception of the same.
Finally, it explains the usefulness of Thomas’ thinking for a renewed artistic realism.
This study analyzes the notion of order in Thomas Aquinas’ texts. The natural order is different from the mathematical one, and is related to contingency, multiplicity, graduality. Such a notion of order is not in contradiction with the reality of chance, but confirms it. In fact, chance is perceivable since it is a lower degree of order. If it were total disorder, chance could not be perceived. Chance can only be explained in theological perspective. For St. Thomas, Providence requires chance. For God nothing is casual, but for human beings chance is the space of human freedom and God’s gifts.
Quante volte non e stato scritto, dall’Illuminismo in poi, che il libero pensiero, il progresso della scienza e il dominio dell’uomo sulla natura (attraverso la scienza stessa e il prodigioso avanzamento tecnico) avrebbero liberato gradualmente ma infallibilmente l’uomo dal «peso» della religione, della superstizione, del fanatismo ed anche da un assurdo giudizio di condanna o di premio nell’oltratomba?