In this communication we propose to clarify the notion of virtue from the Thomistic metaphysics of esse. That is why our reflection will start from the texts of Aquinas. Although a critical historical study of the sources and evolution of the concepts of virtue and virtus essendi in Saint Thomas would surely help us to have a broader perspective, we apologize for taking this path here since it would require a greater development than we can realize in this headquarters. We will then limit ourselves to the doctrinal development, which is the most fundamental, without prejudice to other studies completing the ideas outlined here. The metaphysical deepening in the concept of virtue is of special importance, not only for the development of this discipline, but also for the usefulness of theology and for illumination from the first philosophy of the second philosophies referred to man, his personality and his act.
Less than a year ago, on June 25, Juan Berchmans Vallet de Goytisolo died in Madrid at the age of 94, after a fruitful life in the field of law and Catholic thought. He was born in Barcelona on February 21, 1917, he studied baccalaureate at the school of Nª Sª de la Bonanova in Barcelona, married since 1945 with Teresa Regí, had seven children. Law degree in 1939, he obtained the opposition of Notaries in 1942. As a notary, he exercised successively in Torroella de Montgrí, Malgrat, Arucas, Logroño and acceded to Madrid by opposition in 1949 where he developed his activity until the time of his retirement, in 1987 .
Vita brevis, pro dolor. “Realitas”, inter tot et tam dispares philosophorum doctrinas, ubi reperienda est? Ut naves enim, cunctae scholae, anchora levata, portam veritatis petentes, naufragaverunt in scopulis scepticismi vel relativismi. Quinque saltem navigationes sic perierunt: Praesocratici in cavillatione Sophistarum, Plato atque Aristoteles in scepticismo Academicorum, philosophi Medii Aevi in dubitatione Montani atque anti-Scholasticorum, Cartesius et Locke in negationibus Humii, Kant demum in misologia Post-Moderna.
Aristotle and Aquinas considered relation to have a reality in the world of being independent of awareness. Poinsot took the step of identifying relation as the only positive mode of being which retains its essential character as suprasubjective both when circumstances render it existing in the awareness-independent dimension of being (ens reale) and when circumstances reduce the relation to an awareness-dependent status (ens rationis). Poinsot further demonstrated that this singularity of relation being is what makes the action of signs possible in the world of nature. Cardinal Ratzinger in our own time pointed out that the being of person, as a matter of personal identity, depends upon this being of relation. The human person is not simply a “supposit of a rational nature” but much further an identity developed in time through relationships. Ratzinger’s work combines with the semiotic understanding of Poinsot to point us toward a postmodern understanding which at once re-trieves (in Heidegger’s sense) the medieval understanding of the “type of substance” required for human personhood and at the same time shows how the identity of persons is more than that, requiring the suprasubjective or public dimension which relation adds within the psyche as an actual “personal identity” develops over time
The work of Ricoeur, Temps et récit (three volumes, published between 1983- 1985) is one of his major works about the philosophy of history. This workis studied in this article to verify whether it is a philosophy of history and, above all, to deepen on the author’s thought about this important subject. The terms of the title, time and story, are already revealing its contents, and beside these two categories of a possible dialectic can be considered, namely, the present and the eternity.
“Phenomenology” as orientation of Philosophy itself: being᾽s Manifestation at the light of the world (Plato, sophist)
In the current paper, we try to show that what we use to call “phenomenology”, precisely in the sense evolved by Heidegger in Sein und Zeit, doesn’t represent in any way an “innovation” of contemporary philosophy, but it brings back, in certain way, to the very origin of philosophy in Plato’s thought. We will focus on some cardinal passages of the Sophist in which the orientation of the act of philosophizing it is depicted as phenomenology, that is, as the search and manifestation, at the light of the word, of the being of beings: ζητεῖν καὶ ἐμ-φανίζειν λόγῳ τí ποτ᾽ἔστι. Finally, the paper will attempt to point how Plato assumed and took charge of such a task in its most radical way, risking his thinking to the point of all questioning: in the question for the sense of the being itself
This article aims to determine the possibility of including in the extension of the voluntas ut natura’s concept (as expressed by Aquinas when formally and specifically deals with this issue) some acts of the will arising from a consummate virtue. In order to analyze this problem we consider the relation between judgement by inclination, voluntas ut natura and virtue
Bonum amatur inquantum est communicabile amanti. Love and Good in the Metaphysics of Saint Thomas Aquinas
It is an authentic Saint Thomas Aquinas’ thought —and sometimes forgotten— that contemplative act consists on knowledge and love. To properly understand this thesis is necessary to examine the nature of love and the differentiation of its different types following the footsteps of Aquinas, and we do it from the “good is diffusive of itself ” principle, which means it communicates its own perfection. This process of differentiation of the types of love from this principle allows us to identify the self-giving love or giving of oneself as the most perfect one, because it is the one that best directs the union with the friend. But we argue that this friendly union is achieved by the interplay of one’s life among friends, so that this union is resolved in a contemplative act which necessarily involve knowledge and love. This helps us understand not only the preeminent place of contemplation in the order of human friendship, but even the man who is called by grace to live fully with God, that is, the loving contemplation of divine good.
Finite ens, in the metaphysics of Thomas Aquinas, is characterized by two immanent compositions: that of the act of being with the essence and that of the substance and its accidents, which are ordered or “finalized” to operation. Subsequently, the transcendent foundation of ens shows that esse, essence and operation manifest respectively the efficient, exemplary and final causal action of God the Creator on his creatures. This investigation seeks to explain why and how the act of being that is received by the essence necessarily requires operation as its ultimate expansion. The result is that the participation of created ens in Esse per essentiam is ultimately operative, and not merely static, and is properly expressed by means of the triad esse, essentia, operatio, where the last word means the tendency to act